Nelli, R. K., Harm, T. A., Siepker, C., Groeltz-Thrush, J. M., Jones, B., Twu, N….Bell, T. M. (2024). Sialic Acid Receptor Specificity in Mammary Gland of Dairy Cattle Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases30(7), 1361-1373.

Bell TM, Facemire P, Bearss JJ, Raymond JL, Chapman J, Zeng X, et al. (2024) Smallpox lesion characterization in placebo-treated and tecovirimat-treated macaques using traditional and novel methods. PLoS Pathog 20(2): e1012007.

Cline C, Zeng X, Bell TM, Shaia C, Facemire P, et al. (2023) Temporal changes in pathology and viral RNA distribution in guinea pigs following separate infection with two New World Arenaviruses. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 17(9): e0011620.

Liu, Jun, Eric M. Mucker, Jennifer L. Chapman, April M. Babka, Jamal M. Gordon, Ashley V. Bryan, Jo Lynne W. Raymond, Todd M. Bell, Paul R. Facemire, Arthur J. Goff, Aysegul Nalca, and Xiankun Zeng. 2022. “Retrospective detection of monkeypox virus in the testes of nonhuman primate survivors” Nature Microbiology, 17 OCT 2022.

Mucker, Eric M., Josh D. Shamblin, Arthur J. Goff, Todd M. Bell, Christopher Reed, Nancy A. Twenhafel, Jennifer Chapman, Marc Mattix, Derron Alves, Robert F. Garry, and Lisa E. Hensley. 2022. “Evaluation of Virulence in Cynomolgus Macaques Using a Virus Preparation Enriched for the Extracellular Form of Monkeypox Virus” Viruses 14, no. 9: 1993.

Cline, Curtis*, Todd M. Bell*, Paul Facemire, Xiankun Zeng, Thomas Briese, W. Ian Lipkin, Joshua D. Shamblin et al. “Detailed analysis of the pathologic hallmarks of Nipah virus (Malaysia) disease in the African green monkey infected by the intratracheal route.” PloS one 17, no. 2 (2022): e0263834.*=co-first author

Liu, Jun, Kayla M. Coffin, Sara C. Johnston, April M. Babka, Todd M. Bell, Simon Y. Long, Anna N. Honko, Jens H. Kuhn, and Xiankun Zeng. “Nipah virus persists in the brains of nonhuman primate survivors.” JCI insight 4, no. 14 (2019).

Cashman, Kathleen A., Eric R. Wilkinson, Xiankun Zeng, Anthony P. Cardile, Paul R. Facemire, Todd M. Bell, Jeremy J. Bearss, Carl I. Shaia, and Connie S. Schmaljohn. “Immune-mediated systemic vasculitis as the proposed cause of sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss following Lassa virus exposure in cynomolgus macaques.” MBio 9, no. 5 (2018): e01896-18.

Koistinen, Keith, Lisa Mullaney, Todd Bell, Sherif Zaki, Aysegul Nalca, Ondraya Frick, Virginia Livingston et al. “Coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates: Pathologic and clinical findings.” Veterinary pathology 55, no. 6 (2018): 905-915.

Bell, Todd M., Virginia Espina, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Ashwini Brahms, Brian D. Carey, Shih-Chao Lin et al. “Combination kinase inhibitor treatment suppresses Rift Valley fever virus replication.” Viruses 10, no. 4 (2018): 191.

Cashman, Kathleen A., Eric R. Wilkinson, Carl I. Shaia, Paul R. Facemire, Todd M. Bell, Jeremy J. Bearss, Joshua D. Shamblin et al. “A DNA vaccine delivered by dermal electroporation fully protects cynomolgus macaques against Lassa fever.” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 13, no. 12 (2017): 2902-2911.

Bell, Todd M., Virginia Espina, Svetlana Senina, Caitlin Woodson, Ashwini Brahms, Brian Carey, Shih-Chao Lin et al. “Rapamycin modulation of p70 S6 kinase signaling inhibits Rift Valley fever virus pathogenesis.” Antiviral research 143 (2017): 162-175.

Bell, Todd M. Carl I. Shaia, Jeremy J. Bearss, Marc E. Mattix, Keith A. Koistinen, Shelley P. Honnold, Xiankun Zeng, et al. “Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected with Lassa Virus.” Veterinary Pathology 54, no. 3 (2017): 549-562.

Kendra, Joseph A., Cynthia de la Fuente, Ashwini Brahms, Caitlin Woodson, Todd M. Bell, Bin Chen, Yousuf A. Khan, Jonathan L. Jacobs, Kylene Kehn-Hall, and Jonathan D. Dinman. “Ablation of programmed− 1 ribosomal frameshifting in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus results in attenuated neuropathogenicity.” Journal of Virology 91, no. 3 (2017): e01766-16.

Bell, Todd M., Tracie E. Bunton, Carl I. Shaia, Jo Lynne W. Raymond, Shelley P. Honnold, Ginger C. Donnelly, Josh D. Shamblin, Eric R. Wilkinson, and Kathleen A. Cashman. “Pathogenesis of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in guinea pigs.” Veterinary Pathology 53, no. 1 (2016): 190-199.

Bell, Todd M., Carl I Shaia, Tracie E. Bunton, Camenzind G. Robinson, Eric R. Wilkinson, Lisa E. Hensley, and Kathleen A. Cashman. “Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.” Veterinary Pathology 52, no. 1 (2015): 26-37.

Hammerbeck, Christopher D., Rebecca L. Brocato, Todd M. Bell, Christopher W. Schellhase, Steven R. Mraz, Laurie A. Queen, and Jay W. Hooper. “Depletion of alveolar macrophages does not prevent hantavirus disease pathogenesis in golden Syrian hamsters.” Journal of Virology 90, no. 14 (2016): 6200-6215.

Martins, Karen, Christopher Cooper, Travis Warren, Jay Wells, Todd M. Bell, Jo Lynne Raymond, Kelly Stuthman, et al. “Characterization of clinical and immunological parameters during Ebola virus infection of rhesus macaques.” Viral Immunology 28, no. 1 (2015): 32-41.

Johnston, Sara C., Thomas Briese, Todd M. Bell, William D. Pratt, Joshua D. Shamblin, Heather L. Esham, Ginger C. Donnelly, et al. “Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.” PloS one 10, no. 2 (2015): e0117817.

Glaros, Trevor G., Candace D. Blancett, Todd M. Bell, Mohan Natesan, and Robert G. Ulrich. “Serum biomarkers of Burkholderia mallei infection elucidated by proteomic imaging of skin and lung abscesses.” Clinical Proteomics 12, no. 1 (2015): 1-14.

Bozue, Joel, Christopher K. Cote, Taylor Chance, Jeffrey Kugelman, Amy Jenkins, Krishna Moody, Camenzind Robinson, Ernest Brueggemann, Harry Hines, David Fritz, Todd M. Bell, and Patricia Worsham. “A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge.” PLoS One 9, no. 8 (2014): e104524.

Cashman, Kathleen A., Kate E. Broderick, Eric R. Wilkinson, Carl I. Shaia, Todd M. Bell, Amy C. Shurtleff, Kristin W. Spik, et al. “Enhanced efficacy of a codon-optimized DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein precursor gene of Lassa virus in a guinea pig disease model when delivered by dermal electroporation.” Vaccines 1, no. 3 (2013): 262-277.

Brocato, Rebecca L., Christopher D. Hammerbeck, Todd M. Bell, Jay B. Wells, Laurie A. Queen, and Jay W. Hooper. “A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.” Journal of Virology 88, no. 2 (2014): 811-819.

Alves, Derron A., Todd M. Bell, Carrie Benton, Elisabeth J. Rushing, and Edward L. Stevens. “Giant thoracic schwannoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).” Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49, no. 6 (2010): 868-872.

Rivero, Rodolfo, Carolina Matto, María de Lourdes Adrien, Fernando Nan, Todd Bell, and Christopher Gardiner. “Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay.” Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 20 (2011): 259-261.


Bell, Todd M. “Veterinary Pathology, Biodefense and Biomedical Research.” In Huck, Leslie G., and Ronald L. Burke, eds. Military Veterinary Services. Government Printing Office, 2019.

Bell, Todd M. “Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers,” contributor and editor. Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook (Blue Book), 8th Edition, 2014.

Bell, Todd M. Proceedings, Veterinary Pathology Wednesday Slide Conference, 2008-2009